Theme: Local Contexts in Global Business

Submission Deadline: Wednesday, January 15th, 2014

Program Chair: Klaus Meyer, China Europe International Business School ( )

Globalization is increasing opportunities for business to create value by bridging across different local contexts. At the same time, these local contexts retain their distinct characteristics in terms of, for example, culture, regulations, resources and human capital. Increasing interactions across nations, however, does not necessarily lead to convergence: Local communities retain their distinctiveness. In fact, for many, local identity may even become more important in response to the anonymous forces of globalization. On the other hand, some communities, such as our host city Vancouver, thrive on the interaction of people from a diversity of backgrounds, and become hubs of global business. Communities also build on local values, which can themselves become global. Vancouver, the home of Greenpeace, aspires to be the world's greenest city and the home to companies producing green technologies.

The tension between the globalizing and localizing forces in our societies create major challenges for businesses. For example, how do firms and individuals engage with the dual demands of acting both local and global? How do companies exploit the diversity of the world economy to gain competitive advantage in a variety of local markets? How do global (or regional) MNEs manage to deliver locally relevant products and services? How do MNE operations in multiple localities shape global innovation processes? How do local concerns about social or environmental issues in communities of place and indigenous societies get heard in a world of global business? How are global concerns, such as global warming, violent conflicts, and financial crises, reflected in local decisions by businesses?

This tension also creates profound challenges for how we do research in the field of international business. For example, how do we incorporate aspects of local context in our theorizing? How can we make highly abstract theories relevant for different local contexts? How can we derive relevant theoretical insights from single context studies? How can we ensure our measurements of abstract constructs are valid in different cultural contexts?

Paper and Panel Submissions

Paper and panel submissions for AIB 2014 need to be categorized into one of thirteen topical and two special tracks. Each paper or panel proposal must be submitted to only one track. Please select the track closest to your proposal from the list below. All single country studies must focus on IB-relevant topics such as MNCs, international institutions, trade, global value chains, etc.

1. People and Careers in Cross-Cultural Business
Track chair: Davina Vora, State University of New York at New Paltz, USA ( )

People both drive and are affected by international business. This track explores the challenges faced by people working in MNEs, interacting with MNEs and/or crossing national borders in their professional lives. Papers exploring cross-cultural management issues from the individual and/or group perspective are welcome in this track. Indicative research questions for this track include: How do individuals, with their distinct personal experiences and abilities, shape the evolution of international business? How do people acquire the capabilities to effectively operate in, and lead, business operations across cultural contexts? How does international business impact people personally, for example as leaders or employees with multiple roles within and outside the organization? How do individuals' capabilities and values evolve over generations, and how does that impact their engagement with businesses as employees, consumers or critical stakeholders? How does diversity of people along various dimensions influence international business activity?

Keywords: Bicultural and multicultural identity; Careers in an international context; Cosmopolitans; Cross-cultural communication; Cross-cultural management; Cross-national diversity; Cultural intelligence; Cross-cultural teams; Diasporas; Dual careers in IB; Education and international careers; Emerging global labor market; Expatriates; Foreign assignments; Gender issues across cultures; Generational change; Global mindsets; Global leader competencies; Inpatriates; Intercultural work relationships; International experience; International migration; International mobility; Intra-national diversity; Language; Leadership; Multicultural teams; Personality; Preparation for international assignments; Returnees; Talent management; Top management teams; Virtual team processes and outcomes; Women's careers; Work-family issues; Qualitative research methods; Quantitative research methods.

2. Entrepreneurship, SMEs, and Born Globals
Track chair: Shameen Prashantham, Nottingham University Business School China ( )

You don't have to be big to play on the global stage. Large numbers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are participating in international trade, investment, and collaboration. Their internationalization is facilitated advanced information and communications technologies, and other globalization trends. International new ventures ("born globals") are even conducting international business right from their founding. For many small businesses, initial activities on the international stage are low profile transactions such as sourcing and selling (i.e. import and export) or partnerships with businesses based in other countries. Indicative research questions for this track include: How do entrepreneurs / SMEs use non-equity modes of business to engage in international business? Through what processes do they upgrade from low commitment modes to higher commitment modes at more mature stage of their development? How do the features of local and global environments affect international activity of entrepreneurs and SMEs? Hoes does personal prior experience shape individuals entrepreneurial behavior?

Keywords: Advanced technologies and SMEs; Born-global firms; Early internationalization; Entrepreneurial networks; Expatriate entrepreneurs; Exporting by SMEs; Global start-ups; Gradual internationalization; Globalization and SMEs; High tech start-ups; Exporting/Importing by SMEs; International new ventures; International entrepreneurship; International strategy for SMEs; International entrepreneurial orientation; International entrepreneurial ventures; Internationalization process model; Internet entrepreneurs; Migration and entrepreneurship; Process perspectives of IB; Rapid internationalization; Returnee entrepreneurs; Women entrepreneurs; Qualitative research methods; Quantitative research methods.

3. Organization, Management and Human Resources of the MNE
Track chair: Dana Minbaeva, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark ( )

MNEs organize across borders. This track seeks to explore new ways in which MNEs operate across diverse international contexts, and how they configure themselves internally and externally. We are particularly interested in novel forms of organization that cross geographic locations such as virtual teams, internal knowledge networks, and offshored divisional headquarters. How do different organizing frameworks help MNEs manage the complexity and tensions inherent in their activities, and in turn create capabilities and competitive advantage? How do organizing frameworks affect intra-firm and inter-firm innovation and knowledge flows? How do novel organizational structures, systems, strategies influence firm performance? Further, how do management and organization of the MNEs affects and is affected by diverse and changing local and global environments?

Keywords: Autonomy; Control; Coordination; Global operational structures; Headquarters; Headquarter-subsidiary-relationships; Heterarchy; Incentives; International human resource management; Intranets and internal social networks; Local embeddedness; Management of operations; Matrix structure; Metanational; Networks; New forms of organizing work internationally; Operations in emerging economies; Organizational culture; Organizational configuration; Organizational structure; Regional structure; Resource planning; Structure; Subsidiary mandates; Subsidiary strategy; Teams as organizational form; Tension; Transnational organization; Qualitative research methods; Quantitative research methods.

4. Marketing and Consumers in IB
Track chair: Janet Y. Murray, University of Missouri-St. Louis, USA ( )

Reaching customers in other countries is the prime motive for many firms to go international. This track addresses challenges of entering and growing in foreign markets and interacting with diverse sets of customers. We welcome contributions focusing on any aspect of marketing and consumer behavior, especially work offering new conceptual and empirical insights into the nature and processes of cross-border marketing. Mainstream marketing issues such as segmentation, product positioning, channel development, and pricing are also encouraged, especially studies exploring how and why local context matter for these aspects of marketing. We are particularly interested in papers that examine the impact of the global and local environment on marketing-related issues. How and why does consumers behavior vary across countries? What are consumers attitudes to global and local brands? What modes of entry are appropriate for which kind of local contexts?

Keywords: Acquisitions as mode of entry; Adaptation versus standardization; Advertisement; Bottom of the pyramid products; Brand loyalty; Branding; Buyer behavior; Business-to-business marketing; Buyer-supplier relations; Consumer behavior; Cross-border marketing activities; Country-of-origin image; Distribution management; E-commerce; Entry modes; Export performance; Export sales; Good enough product markets; Local adaptation; Luxury goods marketing; Market entry; Market orientation; Marketing channels; Marketing in emerging economies; Marketing mix; Multinational marketing operations; New product development; Pricing; Sales; Segmentation; Services marketing; Qualitative research methods; Quantitative research methods.

5. Global Value Chains and the Geography of IB
Track chair: Vikas Kumar, University of Sydney, Australia ( )

Globalization provides new opportunities to organize business geographically. This track invites papers focusing on any aspect of the spatial organization of business. As value creation is becoming increasingly dispersed around the globe, linkages between global centers of excellence are becoming more important, often complementing networks in the local environment of an operation. These trends underpin the evolution of business strategies and practices, such as offshoring and outsourcing of increasingly sophisticated activities to emerging economies and the growing dispersal of innovative activities within MNE networks. Indicative research questions for this track include: How do firms manage the increasing complexity of global value chains and industry networks? How do businesses structure their organizations to best exploit opportunities of value creation across multiple local contexts? How do the determinants of location of economic activity evolve under the pressures of globalization?

Keywords: Arbitrage strategies; Business process offshoring; Clusters; Comparative advantages; Disaggregation of value chains; Economic geography; Emerging economies; Fine slicing of value chains; Geography of IB activities; Global production networks; Global value chains; Importing; Location of operations; Logistics; OEM; Offshoring; Outsourcing; Nearshoring; Purchasing; Re-aggregation of value propositions; Relocation of production; Re-shoring; Sourcing; Supply chain management; Third party logistics; Value chain configuration; Value chain coordination; Qualitative research methods; Quantitative research methods.

6. Innovation and Knowledge Management
Track chair: Felipe Monteiro, INSEAD, France ( )

Knowledge is for many firms the most important source of competitive advantage. This track addresses how knowledge is created, transferred, assimilated, transformed and used internationally. This can occur through the processes of innovation, learning, research and development (R&D), etc. The track will explore how MNCs and internationalizing firms learn, manage knowledge and innovate. Some examples of topics of interest include: Why do global and local networks of innovation interact? How do firms manage cross-national systems of open innovation for the benefit of all partners in a collaborative innovation initiative? Which governance mechanisms are most conducive for knowledge development? How do MNEs transfer knowledge and organizational practices across borders during a changing global geography of innovation? How do firms manage knowledge acquisition and sharing across emerging economies? We especially welcome studies that address global knowledge management issues in the context of diverse and challenging global and local environments.

Keywords: Absorptive capacity; Centers of excellence; Exploration vs. exploitation; Global and local knowledge; Innovation clusters; Innovation in emerging economies; Innovation in MNEs; Knowledge search; Knowledge access; Knowledge acquisition; Knowledge creation; Knowledge governance mechanisms; Knowledge sourcing; Knowledge sharing; Learning across borders; Learning alliances; Learning in IB networks; Licensing; MNCs and global innovation; National and regional innovation systems; Networks for innovation; Open innovation; Organizational learning in MNEs; Reverse knowledge transfer; R&D outsourcing; R&D offshoring; R&D subsidiaries; South-South knowledge sharing; Technology management; Technology scouting; University-MNE relationships; Qualitative research methods; Quantitative research methods.

7. Competition and Collaboration in IB
Track chair: Aya Chacar, Florida International University, USA ( )

Firms compete, yet at the same time they cooperate. This new track incorporates research that examines how firms interact with each other in terms of both competition and collaboration, including partnerships and alliances. We welcome studies of the dynamics of competition on the global stage and between foreign and local firms, for example in emerging economies. At the same time, firms use a wide variety of collaborative arrangements ranging from informal partnerships to equity joint ventures. Key research questions include: How do local firms compete with foreign entrants in their home markets? When do firms collaborate rather than compete? What determines the choice of organizational form for partnerships and strategic alliances? How does the local environment, for example regulatory institutions, influence strategies and practices of competition and collaboration?

Keywords: Alliances; Awareness-motivation-capability framework; Business networks; Catch-up strategies; Collaboration; Collusion; Competitive action; Competition between local and global firms; Competitive dynamics; Control modes; Co-opetition; Customer relationships; Duopoly; Entry modes; Global competition; Interactions between foreign-owned and indigenous firms; Joint ventures; Minority equity stakes; Multi-market competition; Non-equity partnerships; Ownership strategies; Partial acquisitions; Partnering; Partner selection; Stability of JVs/Alliances; Supplier relationships; Qualitative research methods; Quantitative research methods.

8. Global Strategy, M&As and Competitiveness
Track chair: Jordan Siegel, Harvard Business School, USA ( )

For MNEs, the global economy is the stage on which they develop their strategies. This track invites conceptual and empirical papers that deal with firms' global strategies and their impact on competitiveness. Globalization is creating numerous forms of new business opportunities; yet to exploit such opportunities, businesses need to design strategies that constructively exploit international diversity while keeping costs and frictions of diversity under control. In the pursuit of such global strategies, MNEs frequently employ M&As and hence face challenges such as target selection, due diligence, and post-acquisition integration. We encourage papers that examine how global and regional strategies relate to institutional or economic changes in home and host countries. Finally, how do parent-subsidiary relationships processes of formulating and implementing global strategies that enhance MNE performance?

Keywords: Competitiveness; Diversification strategies; Global networks; Global strategy; Growth strategies; Headquarters; Integration-responsiveness framework; International alliance; International strategy; Inter-firm linkage; Mergers and acquisitions; Multidomestic strategy; Parent-subsidiary relationships; Performance; Processes of globalization; Product diversification; Regional headquarters; Regional strategies; Service sector globalization; Transnational strategy; Qualitative research methods; Quantitative research methods.

9. Home Economies and the MNE
Track chair: Pavida Pananond, Thammasat University, Thailand ( )

National roots matter in international business. This track explores how the origins of MNEs matter for how they evolve on the global stage. We in particular welcome papers on MNEs from non-traditional origins, such as emerging economy MNEs. Some researchers argue that emerging economy MNEs are a new phenomenon that requires new theories, while others argue that their behavior can be easily explained with existing theories. This track welcomes studies contributing to this debate. Moreover, we welcome papers investigating strategies or practices that are, or appear to be, associated with MNEs from particular origins, such as strategy asset seeking FDI by emerging economy firms. Indicative questions include: Does the national origin matter, and if so for what aspects of their international strategies? How do ownership arrangement and organizational forms prevalent in certain countries, such as business groups and state owned firms, impact on outward investment strategies? How can aspects of the home country be incorporated into theories of the MNE?

Keywords: Business groups; Competitive advantage and home country advantages; Competitive disadvantage and home country dis-advantages; Competition between MNEs from different origins; Country of origin image; Country of origin perceptions; Developing country firms; Emerging economy MNEs; Home country governments; Home economy and internationalization processes; Home economy knowledge creation; Home economy corporate governance; Institutions of the home country; Resource-seeking FDI; South-North FDI; Sovereign wealth funds; State owned MNEs; Strategic asset seeking FDI; Qualitative research methods; Quantitative research methods.

10. Theories of the MNE and of FDI
Track chair: Gabriel Benito, BI Norwegian Business School, Norway ( )

Theory development is a core objective of the social sciences, including the field of international business. This tracks aims to advance the development of IB theory in terms of both enhancing existing theories and developing new theories. We welcome especially papers that explore various aspects of the MNE and FDI, including motivations for undertaking investment, drivers and determinants of location choices and entry and operation mode decisions, and issues pertaining to how MNC headquarters and affiliates interact with and effect host-country firms, governments and institutional environments. This track also invites papers that explore the nature of MNE decision making and strategies in uncertain economic, political and institutional contexts. We welcome pure theory papers as well as theoretical advances supported by empirical tests.

Keywords: Dynamic capabilities; Entry modes; Firm-specific advantages; Institutional perspectives on FDI; Internalization theory; Internationalization processes; Institutional change and FDI; Liabilities of foreignness; Local linkages; Location of FDI; Institutional change and MNE theory; MNEs and local economic development; Real options perspectives on FDI; Resource-based perspectives; Operation mode dynamics; Ownership-Location-Internalization framework; Transaction cost theory; Uncertainty in decision making and strategy; Assessment of existing theory; New theoretical concepts; New theoretical models and framework; Theory with empirical tests.

11. Stakeholders, Responsible Leadership and Governance
Track chair: Sheila Puffer, Northeastern University, USA ( )

Businesses exist not only to benefit shareholders, but they have broader roles and responsibilities in the societies in which they operate. This track covers research on all aspects of social, ethical and environmental issues that either impact on businesses, or that businesses themselves pursue. In particular, we are looking for research that places international businesses in the broader realm of the societies in which they operate, and hence the social and environmental concern expressed in those societies. For example, how do initiatives taken by businesses under the headings of 'corporate social responsibility 'or 'triple bottom line' impact both the firm's own performance, and the stakeholders concerned. How do business leaders handle situations of unclear or conflicting ethical demands when operating across multiple local contexts? How do MNEs respond to challenges posed by NGOs and other stakeholders based outside their country of operation? How do changes in the economic and institutional environment in developed and emerging economies affect CSR practices?

Keywords: Accountability; Business and society; Bottom of the pyramid; Business and the environment; Civil society; Climate change; Codes of conduct; Corporate governance codes; Corporate social responsibility; Corporate values; Corruption; Directorship interlocks; Environmental sustainability; Ethical business practice; Ethical relativism; Favors; Governance structure; Green management; Human rights; Hypernorms; Moral foundations of capitalism; NGOs; Philanthropy; Political aspects of MNC activity; Political Strategies; Poverty; Privacy; Responsible leadership; Resilient leadership under adversity; Shareholder categories; Stakeholders; Stakeholder engagement; Stakeholder capitalism; Standards of engagement; Sustainable development; Transparency; Top management teams; Triple bottom line; Unethical behavior; Voting rights; White collar-crime; Qualitative research methods; Quantitative research methods.

12. The Institutional and Political Environment of IB
Track chair: Pei Sun, Fudan University, China ( )

Internationally operating firms face a plethora of different rules, regulations and politics. This track invites manuscripts that examine how such institutions influence the behavior of MNCs, domestic firms and decision makers and how the actions of these actors, in turn, shape the institutional environment. Studies of global or comparative aspects of corporate governance codes or practices are also invited to this track. Papers examining a variety of levels of analysis - individual, firm, industry, regional, country and global - are especially encouraged. Relevant institutional characteristics include both formal and informal rules such as law, culture, and social norms that shape actions of firms and individuals. Indicative research questions include: How do changes in regulatory environment, for example in emerging economies, affect the strategies of business? How do MNEs deal with institutional idiosyncrasies and institutional voids in emerging economies? How do emerging market MNEs manage institutional and regulatory demands from developed economies? How do supra-national institutions and organizations, such as WTO, affect the behaviors of internationally operating firms? How do firms manage anticipated institutional change and evolving sources of political risk?

Keywords: Accounting standards; ASEAN; Bilateral trade agreements; Bilateral investment treaties; Business systems; Business-government interaction; Comparative analysis of institutions; Comparative economic systems; Comparative accounting systems and practice; Corporate governance codes; European Union; Formal and informal institutions; Free trade areas; Governments; IFRS; Institutional distance; Institutional voids; Institutional theory; Institutions in emerging economies; International accounting standards; Intellectual property rights; Law; Legal systems; Legitimacy of business practices; MNE-host government relations; Multi-lateral institutions; NAFTA; New institutional economics; Political economy; Political risk; Political ties; Political systems; Regulation of MNC; Regional integration; State ownership; Sub-national institutions; Tax competition; Tax havens; Transfer pricing; Varieties of capitalism; WTO; Qualitative research methods; Quantitative research methods.

13. International Finance and Economics
Track chair: Lars Oxelheim, Lund University, Sweden ( )

The theoretical tools and empirical methods developed in contemporary economics and finance provide key insights for IB research questions. This track calls for papers written from a discipline base of Economics or Finance or papers covering issues or topics in International Finance (e.g. M&As, valuation, capital flows, transfer pricing, etc.), and Economics (e.g., international trade, exchange rates, international political economy, international economic development, etc.). Applied or theoretical economics papers and/or economics research methods papers or papers developing theory using the tools of economics should also be sent to this track. Papers examining finance and economics research questions such as international trade and development are also appropriate for this track. Papers in this stream are expected to draw on the economics and/or finance literature but speak to the broader community of IB scholars.

Keywords: Agglomeration; Bailouts; Board internationalization; Capital market development; Capital structure; Country risk; Ownership structure; Corporate performance; Corporate control; Initial public offerings (IPOs); Institutional investors; Current account adjustment; Duration models; Economic development; Economic integration; Economic geography; Exchange rate exposure; Exchange rates; Financial management; Financial risk management; Foreign portfolio investment; Game theory; Hedging; International asset pricing; International cross-listing; International economics; International finance and taxation; International financial integration; International financial reporting; International investment; International trade; Knowledge and productivity spillovers; Macroeconomic risk management; Mergers and acquisitions; Non-linear models; Panel data models; Short-term capital movements; Spillovers.

14. Research Methodology in IB (Special Track)
Track chair: Timothy Devinney, University of Leeds, UK ( )

This special track on research methodologies aims to address methodological issues encountered by IB researchers. We welcome submissions that evaluate applications of current methods or describe the development of new methods that offer IB researchers innovative design and data analytical strategies to address substantive research questions.

Keywords: Construct validity in multi-country samples; Data collection for IB research questions; Databases; Emic and epic concepts; Generalizability of empirical studies; Measurement issues in IB Research; Multilevel analysis; Philosophy of science; Process Research; Qualitative research methods; Quantitative research methods.

15. Teaching IB (Special Track)
Track chair: Andreas Schotter, Ivey Business School, Canada ( )

Most IB scholars spend a great deal of time and energy on teaching! The goal of the track is to provide AIB members the opportunity to share innovative approaches to making the process of teaching IB at all levels more effective and enjoyable for all involved - both students and lecturers. Please see the Teaching IB Special Track Call for Papers for specific instructions regarding submissions to this track.

Keywords: Case teaching; Case writing; Cross-cultural classrooms; Blended learning; Experiential learning; Internationalizing the business school curriculum; Developing an IB curriculum; Dual degrees; EMBA; Executive education; IB textbooks; International exchange programs; International study tours as part of the IB experience; Multimedia in IB teaching; Open online courses; Simulations and role-playing; Undergraduate IB education; Web-based courses.

We will be accepting two types of submissions - papers and panels. Paper and panel submissions need to be categorized into one of the thirteen topical tracks or into one of the two special tracks described above. Each paper or panel proposal must be submitted to only one track. For the special tracks on teaching and research methods, please contact the track chairs to discuss the preferred format of the sessions.

All submissions will be handled through the AIB online submission system. All manuscripts and proposals must be submitted by January 15, 2014. Please refer to the detailed submission instructions page for additional information on how to prepare and submit your submission. For up-to-date information about the conference and related events, please check the conference website at Any questions regarding this call for papers should be addressed to the track chairs or the Program Chair, .

Klaus Meyer
Program Chair, AIB 2014 Annual Meeting
China Europe International Business School, Shanghai