The JIBS Decade Award was inaugurated in 1996 to honor the most influential JIBS article of the volume ten years prior. In 2003, Palgrave Macmillan became the publisher of JIBS and also began to sponsor the award. In 2009, as part of the 40th Anniversary celebrations of JIBS, the JIBS Editors also presented awards for the volumes from 1970-1985. More information about the award, a complete list of all recipients (including the pre-1986 volumes), and access to the award winning articles, can be found at the Palgrave JIBS Decade Award Website.


Winner(s):Jan Johanson and Jan‐Erik Vahlne
Article:The Uppsala internationalization process model revisited: From liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership  (Download PDF)
Abstract:The Uppsala internationalization process model is revisited in the light of changes in business practices and theoretical advances that have been made since 1977. Now the business environment is viewed as a web of relationships, a network, rather than as a neoclassical market with many independent suppliers and customers. Outsidership, in relation to the relevant network, more than psychic distance, is the root of uncertainty. The change mechanisms in the revised model are essentially the same as those in the original version, although we add trust-building and knowledge creation, the latter to recognize the fact that new knowledge is developed in relationships.


Winner(s):Gregory Jackson and Richard Deeg
Article:Comparing capitalisms: understanding institutional diversity and its implications for international business  (Download PDF)
Abstract:This paper examines the role of institutional analysis within the field of international business (IB) studies. Within IB, institutions matter, but the view of institutions tends to be “thin”, utilizing summary indicators rather than detailed description, and thus approaches institutions as unidimensional “variables” that impact on particular facets of business activity. This paper argues that IB research would be usefully advanced by greater attention to comparing the topography of institutional landscapes and understanding their diversity. A number of alternative case-based approaches are outlined that draw on a growing “comparative capitalisms” literature in sociology and political science. The paper develops a number of empirical examples to show the utility and limits of these approaches for IB scholars.


Winner(s):Peter J. Buckley, L. Jeremy Clegg, Adam R. Cross, Xin Liu, Hinrich Voss and Ping Zheng
Article:The determinants of Chinese outward forign direct investment  (Download PDF)
Abstract:This study investigates the determinants of Chinese outward direct investment (ODI) and the extent to which three special explanations (capital market imperfections, special ownership advantages and institutional factors) need to be nested within the general theory of the multinational firm. We test our hypotheses using official Chinese ODI data collected between 1984 and 2001. We find Chinese ODI to be associated with high levels of political risk in, and cultural proximity to, host countries throughout, and with host market size and geographic proximity (1984–1991) and host natural resources endowments (1992–2001). We find strong support for the argument that aspects of the special theory help to explain the behaviour of Chinese multinational enterprises. (JIBS vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 499 –518, 2007)


Winner(s):Bradley L. Kirkman, Kevin B. Lowe and Cristina B. Gibson
Article:A Quarter Century of Culture's Consequences: A Review of Empirical Research Incorporating Hofstede's Cultural Values Framework  (Download PDF)
Abstract:Since Geert Hofstede's Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values (Sage, 1980) was published, researchers have utilized Hofstede's cultural values framework in a wide variety of empirical studies. We review 180 studies published in 40 business and psychology journals and two international annual volumes between 1980 and June 2002 to consolidate what is empirically verifiable about Hofstede's cultural values framework. We discuss limitations in the Hofstede-inspired research and make recommendations for researchers who use Hofstede's framework in the future. (JIBS vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 285-320, 2006)


Winner(s):Klaus Meyer and Mike Peng
Article:Probing Theoretically into Central and Eastern Europe: Transactions, Resources, and Institutions  (Download PDF)
Abstract:Since the 1990s, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has provided unique societal quasi-experiments, which represent opportunities to test the applicability of existing theories in international business and management studies and to develop new ones. Specifically, three lines of theorising have been advanced: (1) organisational economics theories; (2) resource-based theories; and (3) institutional theories. For each of these theories, we discuss how they contribute to the understanding of key issues, such as entry strategies of foreign investors, restructuring strategies of local incumbents, and entry and growth strategies of entrepreneurs. On this basis, we assess how CEE research has influenced the overall trajectories of theory development. CEE research has in particular highlighted the importance of contextual influences such as institutions. Thus, scholars have aimed at incorporating institutions into theories (such as organisational economics theories and resource based theories) and advancing an institution-based view of business strategy as a complementary perspective. We outline how future research in CEE and other emerging economies may advance this research agenda further. (JIBS vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 600-621, 2005)


Winner(s):Gary Knight and S. Tamer Cavusgil
Article:Innovation, Organizational Capabilities, and the Born-Global Firm  (Download PDF)
Abstract:We investigate born-global firms as early adopters of internationalization – that is, companies that expand into foreign markets and exhibit international business prowess and superior performance, from or near their founding. Our explication highlights the critical role of innovative culture, as well as knowledge and capabilities, in this unique breed of international, entrepreneurial firm. Case studies are analyzed to better understand the early internationalization phenomenon and reveal key orientations and strategies that engender international success among these innovative firms. Case findings are then validated in a survey-based study. Despite the scarce resources typical of young firms, our findings reveal that born-global firms leverage a distinctive mix of orientations and strategies that allow them to succeed in diverse international markets. Findings have important implications for the internationalization of contemporary firms. (JIBS vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 124-141, 2004)


Winner(s):Dana Minbaeva, Torben Pedersen, Ingmar Björkman, Carl Fey, and Hyeon Park
Article:MNC Knowledge Transfer, Subsidiary Absorptive Capacity, and HRM  (Download PDF)
Abstract:Based on a sample of 169 subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in the USA, Russia, and Finland, this paper investigates the relationship between MNC subsidiary human resource management (HRM) practices, absorptive capacity, and knowledge transfer. First, we examine the relationship between the application of specific HRM practices and the level of the absorptive capacity. Second, we suggest that absorptive capacity should be conceptualized as being comprised of both employees’ ability and motivation. Further, results indicate that both ability and motivation (absorptive capacity) are needed to facilitate the transfer of knowledge from other parts of the MNC. (JIBS vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 586-599, 2003)


Winner(s):Keith D. Brouthers
Article:Institutional, Cultural and Transaction Cost Influences on Entry Mode Choice and Performance  (Download PDF)
Abstract:In this study, we examine foreign market entry mode choice and firm performance for a sample of European Union firms. Examining both financial and non-financial performance measures, we attempt to determine if firms that select their entry mode based on transaction cost, institutional context, and cultural context variables perform better than firms that make other mode choices. We found that mode choice did matter. Firms whose mode choice could be predicted by the extended transaction cost model performed significantly better, on both financial and non-financial measures, than did firms whose mode choice could not be predicted by the extended transaction cost model. Implications for future research are discussed. (JIBS vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 203-221, 2002)


Winner(s):Oded Shenkar
Article:Cultural Distance Revisited: Towards a More Rigorous Conceptualization and Measurement of Cultural Differences  (Download PDF)
Abstract:Cultural distance is a widely used construct in international business, where it has been applied to foreign investment expansion, entry mode choice, and the performance of foreign invested affiliates, among others. The present paper presents a critical review of the cultural distance construct, outlining its hidden assumptions and challenging its theoretical and methodological properties. A comprehensive framework for the treatment of the construct is developed and concrete steps aimed at enhancing rigor are delineated. (JIBS vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 519-535, 2001)


Winner(s):Jeffrey H. Dyer and Wujin Chu
Article:The Determinants of Trust in Supplier-Automaker Relationships in the U.S., Japan and Korea  (Download PDF)
Abstract:We examine the determinants of trust in 453 supplier-automaker relationships in the U.S., Japan, and Korea. We define trust and derive a model of its determinants drawing upon (1) an embeddedness (relationship-based) perspective, (2) a process-based perspective, and (3) an economic (hostage-based) perspective. Our findings indicate strong support for the processbased perspective in all countries; embeddedness was only important in Japan, and the economic hostage-based variable (stock ownership) was not important in any country. (JIBS vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 259-285, 2000)


Winner(s):Henrik Bresman, Julian Birkinshaw, and Robert Nobel
Article:Knowledge Transfer in International Acquisitions  (Download PDF)
Abstract:This paper reports on a multimethod study of knowledge transfer in international acquisitions. Using questionnaire data we show that the transfer of technological know-how is facilitated by communication, visits & meetings, and by time elapsed since acquisition, while the transfer of patents is associated with the articulability of the knowledge, the size of the acquired unit, and the recency of the acquisition. Using case study data, we show that the immediate post-acquisition period is characterized by imposed one-way transfers of knowledge from the acquirer to the acquired, but over time this gives way to high-quality reciprocal knowledge transfer. (JIBS vol. 30 no 3, pp. 439-462, 1999)


Winner(s):John Dunning
Article:Location and the Multinational Enterprise: A Neglected Factor?  (Download PDF)
Abstract:This article first traces the changing world economic scenario for international business over the past two decades, and then goes on to examine its implications for the location of foreign direct investment and multinational enterprise activity. It suggests that many of the explanations of the 1970s and early 1980s need to be modified as firm-specific assets have become mobile across natural boundaries. A final section of the article examines the dynamic interface between the value-added activities of multinational enterprises in different locations. (JIBS vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 45-66, 1998)


Winner(s):David A Ralston, David R. Holt, Robert H. Terpstra, and Yu Kai-Cheng
Article:The Impact of National Culture and Economic Ideology on Managerial Work Value: A Study of the United States and Russia  (Download PDF)
Abstract:This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individual work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. The convergence-divergence-crossvergence (CDC) framework was used as a theoretical framework for the study, while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize our investigation of managerial work values across these four countries. The findings largely support the crossvergence perspective, while also confirming the roleo f national culture. Implications from the findings are drawn for the convergence-divergence-crossvergence of values, as well as for the feasibility of multidomestic or global strategies for a corporate culture. (JIBS vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 177- 207, 1997)


Winner(s):Marjorie A. Lyles and Jane Salk
Article:Knowledge Acquisition from Foreign Parents in International Joint Ventures: An Empirical Examination in the Hungarian Context  (Download PDF)
Abstract:In this paper we examine organizational characteristics, structural mechanisms and contextual factors that influence knowledge acquisition from the foreign parent in international joint ventures (IJVs). We in turn relates assessments of knowledge acquisition to IJV performance. The data come from a survey of IJVs in the Hungarian context, where learning and knowledge acquisition from the foreign parent is thought to be particularly critical. Adaptation mechanism, such as capacity to learn, articulated goals, and structural mechanisms, such as the provision of training, technology and managerial assistance by foreign parents, all were positively associated with the degree to which IJVs reported acquiring knowledge from their foreign parents. We also found limited support for the belief that cultural conflicts can impede knowledge acquisition, but only two-party joint ventures with 50/50 equity arrangements. We also looked at the relationship between knowledge acquisition and different dimensions for evaluating IJV performance. The relationship between knowledge acquisition and performance was significant for all indicators of performance, through knowledge acquisition from the foreign parent and the organizational characteristic hypothesized to enhance IJV knowledge acquisition affected assessments of some dimensions of performance more than others. Our findings contribute to advancing knowledge about the relationship between organizational characteristics and organizational knowledge acquisition in IJVs, as well as relationships between knowledge acquisition and different dimension of IJVs performance. (JIBS vol. 27 no. 5, pp. 877-903, 1996)


Winner(s):Anoop Madhok
Article:Revisiting Multinational Firms’ Tolerance for Joint Ventures: A Trust-Based Approach  (Download PDF)
Abstract:In spite of the increasing popularity of international joint ventures, managers express a high level of dissatisfaction with them. This paper argues that overemphasis on the outcome has resulted in a neglect of the social processes underlying the outcome. The paper elaborates upon the rationale for a cooperative approach towards interorganizational collaborative relationships based on trust, and discusses it in the context of joint ventures. This is then applied towards understanding multinational ownership preferences and tolerance for joint ventures. It is argued that trust-centered logic is largely consistent with approaches that emphasize the issue of ownership, and deepens and enriches the insights provided by the latter. A shift in focus from ownership to relational dynamics is encouraged. (JIBS vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 117-137, 1995)


Winner(s):Ben Oviatt and Patricia P. McDougall
Article:Toward a Theory of International New Ventures  (Download PDF)
Abstract:The formation of organizations that are international from inception -international new ventures- is an increasingly important phenomenon that is incongruent with traditionally expected characteristics of multinational enterprises. A framework is presented that explains the phenomenon by integrating international business, entrepreneurship, and strategic management theory. That framework describes four necessary and sufficient elements for the existence of international new ventures: (1) organizational formation through internalization of some transactions, (2) strong reliance on alternative governance structures to access resources, (3) establishment of foreign location advantages, and (4) control over unique resources. (JIBS vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 45-64, 1994)


Winner(s):Bruce Kogut and Udo Zander
Article:Knowledge of the Firm and the Evolutionary Theory of the Multinational Corporation  (Download PDF)
Abstract:Firms are social communities that specialize in the creation and internal transfer of knowledge. The multinational corporation arises not out of the failure of markets for the buying and selling of knowledge, but out of its superior efficiency as an organizational vehicle by which to transfer this knowledge across borders. We test the claim that firms specialize in the internal transfer of tacit knowledge by empirically examining the decision to transfer the capability to manufacture new products to wholly owned subsidiaries or to other parties. The empirical results show that the less codifiable and the harder to teach is the technology, the more likely the transfer will be to wholly owned operations. This result implies that the choice of transfer mode is determined by the efficiency of the multinational corporation in transferring knowledge relative to other firms, not relative to an abstract market transaction. The notion of the firm as specializing in the transfer and recombination of knowledge is the foundation to an evolutionary theory of the multinational corporation. (JIBS vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 625-645, 1993)


Winner(s):Sanjeev Agarwal and Sridhar N. Ramaswami
Article:Choice of Foreign Market Entry Mode: Impact of Ownership, Location And Internalization Factors  (Download PDF)
Abstract:Firms interested in servicing foreign markets face a difficult decision with regards to the choice of an entry mode. The options available to a firm include exporting, licensing, joint venture and sole venture. Several factors that determine the choice of a specific foreign market entry mode have been identified in previous literature. These factors can be classified into 3 categories: 1. ownership advantages of a firm, 2. location advantages of a market, and 3. internalization advantages of integrating transactions. An examination is made of the independent and joint influences of these factors on the choice of an entry mode. A multinomial logistic regression model is employed to test the hypothesized effects. (JIBS vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 1-28, 1992)


Winner(s):Arvind Parkhe
Article:Interfirm Diversity, Organizational Learning, and Longetivity in Global Strategic Alliances  (Download PDF)
Abstract:Organizational theorists have correctly argued that the emergence and maintenance of robust cooperation between global strategic alliance partners is related to the diversity in the partners' characteristics. Yet previous research has failed to systematically delineate the important dimensions of interfirm diversity and integrate the dimensions into a unified framework of analysis. A multilevel typology of interfirm diversity is developed, focusing on organizational learning and adaptation as critical processes that dynamically moderate diversity's impact on alliance longevity and effectiveness. (JIBS vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 579-602, 1991)


Winner(s):Benjamin Gomes-Casseres
Article:Firm Ownership Preferences and Host Government Restrictions: An Integrated Approach  (Download PDF)
Abstract:An integrated approach to explaining how multinational enterprises (MNE) select ownership structures for subsidiaries is proposed. The approach integrates 2 previously proposed approaches: 1. MNEs prefer structures that minimize the transaction costs of doing business abroad. 2. Ownership structures are determined by negotiations with the host government, and the outcome depends on the MNE's bargaining power. Statistical analysis is used to separate the effects of the 2 approaches within the integrated approach. The results support one of the more important hypotheses of the bargaining power approach, which holds that attractive domestic markets increase the relative power of host governments. The analysis does not support other hypotheses of this approach, such as those predicting that firms in marketing and research and development (R&D)-intensive industries will have more bargaining power than others. The results also show that relatively large firms and firms with high intrasystem sales are more deterred by government ownership restrictions. (JIBS vol. 21, no.1, pp. 1-22, 1990)


Winner(s):J. Michael Geringer and Louis Hebert
Article:Control and Performance of International Joint Ventures  (Download PDF)
Abstract:Control is a critical concept for successful management and performance of international joint ventures (IJV). A review and synthesis of prior studies suggest that it is possible to distinguish 3 dimensions of IJV control: 1. the focus of control, 2. the extent of control achieved by parent firms, and 3. the mechanisms that parents use to exercise control. Most studies on IJV control have had a limited perspective on the control concept, or they have only looked at one of its dimensions. A review of the literature also suggests that the empirical evidence regarding the control-performance relationship in IJVs is still limited. A model of the study of IJV control is proposed, based on an integrative concept of IJV control that takes into account its different dimensions. It is organized around the concept of strategy. In the model, IJV performance is mainly a function of the fit among the international strategy of the parents, the IJV strategy, and the parameters of control. (JIBS vol. 20, no.2, pp. 235-254, 1989)


Winner(s):John Dunning
Article:The Eclectic Paradigm of International Production: A Restatement and Some Possible Extensions  (Download PDF)
Abstract:The eclectic paradigm of international production, a concept introduced in 1976, offers a holistic framework by which to identify and evaluate the significance of the factors influencing both the initial act of foreign production by enterprises and the growth of such production. Despite much criticism, the eclectic paradigm remains a useful and robust general framework for explaining and analyzing not only the economic rationale of international production, but many organizational and impact issues relating to multinational enterprise (MNE) activity. New theorizing, however, is likely to take a different form in the next decade due to the changing character and organization of international trade. The eclectic paradigm could contribute to these new theories by being further developed in several possible directions. Among the possible directions are: 1. a more formal modeling of the paradigm, 2. inclusion of dynamic and development aspects of international production, 3. locating the locus of decision making, and 4. examining the impact of MNE activity on home and host country economic goals. (JIBS vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1-32, 1988)

Winner(s):Bruce Kogut and Harbir Singh
Article:The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode  (Download PDF)
Abstract:An analysis of 3 kinds of entry modes -- acquisitions, joint ventures, and wholly owned greenfields (start-ups) -- finds support for the belief that national culture affects entry choice. Firm-level variables are diversification, country experience, multinational experience, and US and non-US asset size. Industry-level variables are research and development (R&D), advertising, manufacturing, and services. Country-level variables are cultural distance from the US and uncertainty avoidance. The analysis shows that, the more culturally distant from the US the nation of the entering firm, the more likely the firm will choose a joint venture. The greater the size of the US partner, the more likely the entry will be a joint venture. The more uncertainty-avoiding a culture is, the more likely it is to prefer joint venture or greenfield entry. Manufacturing firms are more likely to prefer greenfield entry. R&D-intensive firms prefer joint venture and greenfield entry. (JIBS vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 411-423, 1988)


Winner(s):Paul Beamish and John C. Banks
Article:Equity Joint Ventures and the Theory of the Multinational Enterprise  (Download PDF)
Abstract:The internalization approach is extended to the theory of multinational enterprise (MNE) to include an expanded role for equity joint ventures (JV). Using the transaction cost paradigm of Williamson (1975), an explanation is offered of why JVs sometimes may be preferred over wholly owned subsidiaries. Under particular arrangements, the potential threats posed by opportunism and small numbers can be reduced to a point where JVs become a more efficient means of dealing with environmental uncertainty even in the face of bounded rationality. Previous research of JV performance provides support for this view. Not all JVs are necessarily unstable or unprofitable arrangements for MNEs. Beamish (1984) has demonstrated that, not only are there clearly discernible differences in the characteristics of successful and unsuccessful JVs, but these characteristics also are consistent with the predictions of internalization theory in its expanded form. (JIBS vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 1-16, 1987)


Winner(s):Erin Anderson and Hubert Gatignon
Article:Modes of Foreign Entry: A Transaction Cost Analysis and Propositions  (Download PDF)
Abstract:When a firm seeks to perform a business function outside its domestic market, it must first choose the best ''mode of entry'' into the foreign market. Entry modes differ greatly in advantages and drawbacks. Because the trade-offs involved are difficult to evaluate, a transaction cost framework is proposed for investigating the entry mode decision. The theory is specifically concerned with maximizing long-term efficiency. The framework provides a theoretical basis for systematically interrelating the literature into propositions. It also provides propositions about interactions that resolve the apparently contradictory arguments advanced to date. The feasibility of clustering 17 entry modes into the degree of control the mode provides the entrant is illustrated. It is concluded that the most appropriate entry mode is a function of the trade-off between control and the cost of resource commitment. (JIBS vol. 17, no.3, pp. 1-26, 1986)

Back to Awards